Monday, February 3, 2020

Business Corporate Strategy (Starbucks in China) Essay

Business Corporate Strategy (Starbucks in China) - Essay Example To go ahead with this task, Starbucks needs to have a detailed customer profile depending on the targeted segments because in general, as a long term strategy, customers are segmented based on their demographics, marketing habits etc. Such an analysis is to be preceded by a detailed analysis of the company, with a Chinese perspective, using some of the following strategic tools. A committed managerial team is headed by Howard Schultz, the present Chairman, who has proved to be a man with a mission. A dynamic person, he known to be full of energy who successfully transformed the US operations to their present proposition. Over time and with experience, Starbucks has developed a sophisticated store-development process based on a six-month opening schedule. This target driven strategy helped the company in opening large number of stores in US and elsewhere. Starbucks has been doing the ground work in China since 1994. Therefore comparing the growth of its operations in other nations, Starbuck could not successfully implement this experience in China and had to be content with relatively modest success. The company has taken little too long in building the foundation. Though Starbucks has shown its commitment to environment and health by maintaining a no-smoking policy, but in this part of the world, people prefer to sit out and chat with a cup of coffee on the table and a cigarette in hand. Opportunities For long China carried the reputation of being the world's greatest opponent of globalisation. But now things are perceptibly different. Today China has transformed itself into a committed member of WTO. Under the globalization, China is a rapidly growing market Though dominantly a tea drinker nation, Chinese consumer is rapidly accepting Coffee as one of the main beverages. According to Euromonitor, total sales of coffee in China has grown by nearly 90% between 1998 and 2003. Estimates for future point out that the market is bound to grow by about 70% in the period 2004-2008. Consumption of coffee has so far been concentrated in big cities only. Now with the establishment of a firm foundation the company can plan out a formidable plan for mediums sized cities and hamlets. Chinese beverages market is still vastly (more than 42%) dominated by Tea drinkers, this leaves enough room for inviting these people

Sunday, January 26, 2020

Effect of Wishing Good Luck on Performance

Effect of Wishing Good Luck on Performance Running head: WHY DOES WISH WORK Does the wish work because of a specific superstitious belief or because the wish is a positive sentiment? Suellen, Hei Lon Kong Abstract The present research examined whether the wish worked because of a specific superstitious belief or because the wish was a positive sentiment. Individuals (N=241) were being put into three different conditions: Good luck with prize draw, Good luck with task and No wish after being informed that they would be entered into a lucky draw. It was hypothesized that wishing participants â€Å"good luck† with the word puzzle will give better performance at the puzzle than nothing. We predicted that their belief in luck (specific superstitious belief) for the prize draw should not affect word puzzle performance. However, if the phrase â€Å"good luck† generates a better mood, a higher level of self-esteem or other factor in the individual, it should be effective. The results indicated that there was no significant difference in the word puzzle score between the three conditions. This research showed that wish did not affect the participants’ performance in the word puzzle test. Introduction Walking under ladders, opening umbrellas indoors and breaking mirrors are all actions that are believed to bring unfortunate; it seems people are just as superstitious when it comes to bringing about good luck too. People also create their own superstitions and rituals in the belief it will change their fortunes. Nearly 6 millions of people in UK admit to being superstitious. Why do people believe in things that cannot be explained and what leads to superstitious behavior? Most conceivable reason is that it is individuals fear of the unknown that drives them to believe in superstitions. External locus of control from own cultural beliefs is another potential explanation to superstitious behaviors. Media also plays an important role in reinforcing superstitious beliefs such as horror movies, it is a powerful source that makes superstition exist in the world, e.g. ghost, supernatural experiences. Superstitious is often defined as excessively credulous belief in and reverence for the supernatural. It can also be defined as, irrational beliefs, especially with regard to the unknown according to the Collins English Dictionary. Professor of the Public Understanding of Psychology at the University of Hertfordshire, Richard Wiseman, once said People can create luck and good fortune by changing their outlook on life, focusing on grabbing opportunities and creating positive expectations. He also believe that some people actually want to be unlucky because it helps them to avoid taking responsibility for their own failings, actions that turn out to be harmful, immoral, or stupid. Superstitious behaviour can also be caused by intuitive thinking that is gained through past experiences. In support to this, researchers had carried out research on pigeons, superstitious actions that are by chance co-occur with the expected outcome, and subjects continue to appear to do so through conditioning process. This shows that stimulus has reinforcing value and can set up superstitious behaviour. (Skinner, 1948) There are negative and positive consequences in superstition. In the traditionally unlucky ghost month (July) in Taiwan, the evidence points to reduced fatalities by drowning. (Yang et. al 2008) It seems that being superstitious can sometimes be a positive thing as some superstitious beliefs prevents fatal accidents like the research I mentioned above (Yang et al 2008). Kevin Abbott, a biologist at Carleton University in Ottawa said, â€Å"From an evolutionary perspective, superstitions seem maladaptive, It plays an important role in human evolution which affects human behaviour. On the other hand, superstitious has its own negative consequences too. In situations over which people have no control (lotteries), superstitious behaviours are a waste of time. However, when some level of control does exist —such as car accidents — the consequences may be more negative than this. There is some evidence for increased car accident rates on Friday 13th relative to other Fridays, though it is argumentative. (Scanlon et al., 1993; N ¨ayh ¨a, 2002; Radun Summala, 2004) It is believed that it is the distraction caused by anxiety as the presumed mechanism. The goal of this research is to test whether wishing participants â€Å"good luck† with the word puzzle will give better performance at the puzzle than nothing. The method of research for this study will be a distribution of a word puzzle generated by the experimenter to the Warwick Undergraduates and their families and friends. The question is whether wishing them â€Å"good luck† with the prize draw will affect their puzzle performance. Gender and age data will also be collected. Looking at the data examined and studied so far are the following proposed predictions: If there is a specific superstitious belief in invoked, it should not be effective: Their belief in luck for the prize draw should not affect puzzle performance. If, however, the phrase â€Å"good luck† affects a more general mood, self-esteem or other factor in the individual, it should be effective. Method Participants For this research, 241 participants took part which included Psychology Undergraduates from University of Warwick and their families and friends( Undergraduates from other departments in Warwick) from 17 through 45 (M= 19.49, SD= 3.15). The participants consisted of 110 females and 131 males. They were not volunteers or getting paid. The department of Psychology in Warwick decided there would be a  £50 Amazon Voucher lucky draw for all participants after they had completed the word puzzle (only for Warwick students outside of Psychology). Designs The independent variable in this research was the condition participants were put in Good luck with prize draw, Good luck with task and No wish. The dependant variable was the number of words they got from the word puzzle. It was an independent Measures ANOVA (Between Subjects ANOVA) with three groups and one condition. Materials An informed consent sheet with Word Puzzle which consisted letters such as: U E P C I I L O S U R T attached at the back. Procedure The study began by gaining the participants consent which they signed and put down their email address and personal information such as age, sex on the consent form. Participants were informed that once they had completed the experiment, they would be entered into a random prize draw with other participants for a  £50 Amazon voucher. As the offer only opened to Warwick student outside of Psychology, the department would use their contact address to check that whether they were eligible and to contact them if they won. In this experiment, participants were allocated to three different conditions: 1: Good luck with prize draw, 2: Good luck with task and 3: No wish. In the first condition, experimenter would wish them good luck on the prize draw before they began to complete task. In the second condition, experiment would wish them good luck on the task and in the third condition, the experimenter would say nothing and let them begin. They were required to complete the word puzzle, to create as many English words as they could from the set of letters: U E P C I I L O S U R T. They were only allowed to use a letter twice if it appeared twice in the list that was in the case: I; they were asked to complete the task within two minutes. Following completion of the task, experimenter would note condition (e.g. 1, 2, 3). The experiment were completely anonymous, instead of names, we used numbers to identify the participants. All data would remain strictly confidential. Participants were then debriefed at the end and were told that they had the right to withdraw any consent given, and to require that their own data such as the score they got from the task, their email, be destroyed. Results The mean and standard deviation of the scores for condition â€Å"Good luck with prize draw† was (M=14.1, SD=7.6), Condition â€Å"Good luck with task† was (M=15.2, SD=8.1) and Condition â€Å"No wish† was (M=14, SD=6.5). There was no significant difference between the three wish groups as determined by one-way ANOVA in the ability of getting higher score in the word puzzle. (F (2,238) =0.682, p > .05). A Tukey post-hoc test revealed that the score gained from the participants have no significant difference in the condition â€Å"Good luck with prize draw (14.1  ± 7.6, p = 0.616) and the condition â€Å"No wish† (14.0  ± 6.5, p = 0.536) course compared to the condition â€Å"Good luck with task† (15.2  ± 8.1). There was no statistically significant differences between the condition â€Å"Good luck with prize draw† and the condition â€Å"No wish† (p = .990). Discussion Our hypothesis was that wishing participants â€Å"good luck† with the word puzzle will give better performance at the puzzle than nothing. The data obtained did not support our hypothesis as there was no significant difference in the score from the three conditions. In this study, we used the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to determine whether there are any significant differences between the means of three independent variables (the three conditions). Although the one-way ANOVA could not tell us which specific groups were significantly different from each other, it tells us that at least two groups were different. Age differences was an issue in this research, the fact that the participants’ age ranged 17-45. As we grow older, we would know more words than we did when we were younger. Age of the respondents seemed to better explain some ethical differences among respondents in some situations. This is in line with earlier research that found that people tend to be more ethical as they grow older (Weber and Green, 1991;Terpstra et al., 1993). It is not appropriate to use participants that have a large range in age. Our findings can be generalised to the whole populations as there is no significant difference in the score in the three conditions. In this research, we would say that the wish does not affect the puzzle performance because of a superstitious belief as proved by the results. In the future research on this topic, researchers should use participants that have similar age to make it an ethical test and that wish does not work of a specific superstitious belief or because the wish is a positive sentiment. References BBC. (2010). Superstitions: Friday 13th unlucky for you? . Available: Last accessed 9th Feb 2014. Berrill,A. (2012). Isnt it all pants? One in six superstitious Brits refuse to walk under ladders, while over 800,000 admit to having lucky underwear. Available: Last accessed 9th Feb 2014. Landrum, R. Eric. (2008). Undergraduate writing in psychology : learning to tell the scientific story. Washington, D.C. : American Psychological Association. p.57-p160. Mills, C. (2011). Superstitions Have Evolutionary Basis. Available: Last accessed 10th Feb 2014. Sidani,Y., Zbib,I., Rawwas,M.,Moussawer, T. (2009). Gender, age, and ethical sensitivity. Gender, age, and ethical sensitivity: the case of Lebanese workers. 24 (1), 211-227 Tavris, C., Aronson, E. (2008). Mistakes were made (but not by me) : why we justify foolish beliefs, bad decisions, and hurtful act. Orlando, Fla.: Harcourt. p1-57.

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Recording, analysing and using HR information Essay

Recording, analysing and using HR information GFM needs to collect and record data for legal and internal reasons. Legally we need to ensure that we are complying with the â€Å"Working Time Regulations and pay rates for the Minimum Wage Act 1998 and tax and national insurance obligations†, we also need to be complaint with the data protection and freedom of information act. We need to ensure that employees know why we are holding this information and how we secure it. Internally we use the information to send reports to managers on absence, performance, salary, leavers and joiners, recruitment and health and safety. We also use this information to help us communicate any necessary information regarding themselves or company policies to individuals. The following data is collected from an employee either prior to their commencement of employment or the day that they start with us: CV / Application form New employee form, on this form it asks for personal information i.e. name, dob, contact numbers, address, marital status, national insurance number, next of kin details, bank details (sort code, account number and bank address) P45 or P46 Health and safety questionnaires Equal opportunities data Valid UK passport or full birth certificate Signed contract The reason the above information is collected is to support the HR function in the following ways: Legal / Compliance – with WTR, MWA, DPA and FOI Communication – To keep in touch with employees, address for written communication, phone numbers for verbal communication and next of kin details in case of emergency. We need to inform employees of any contract changes and policy and procedure changes Payroll – to ensure that we have the correct details on file so we can pay staff for the hours that they have worked in line with the Minimum Wage Act 1998 and tax and national insurance obligations Data capture – to produce accurate reporting on absence, recruitment, equal opportunities and health and safety, findings are presented to line managers for effective management  of their teams This information we hold is stored on our secure HR electronic system and manually in a locked filing cabinet. Holding this information electronically means that the information relating to any employee or former employee can be accessed quicker and the management of employee documents is easier. Another benefit of this is accuracy, easy to search for items contained within some ones file and less chance of someone else’s details being stored in another personnel file. It also requires less physical storage space, so if you are a company with limited storage space then this is a very effective solution. A benefit to having manually locked filing cabinets would be that it is less expensive to set up , if the computer systems were to fail you would still have access to all employee records and information, there would also be less risk of corrupted files and or loss of data should the electronic system fail. At all times any personnel or data capture information relating to an employee or organisation must be compliant with the Data Protection and Freedom of Information Act. The Data Protection Act â€Å"gives individuals the right to know what information is held about them, and provides a framework to ensure that personal information is held correctly.† To HR this means that information must be held securely, protected and that only relevant information relating to that employee is held on their file. The Freedom of Information Act is the request for public records relating to something specific. In HR if we were asked to release information, specifically related to our head count or equality information we would be obliged to make this information available to the public.

Friday, January 10, 2020

Be the First to Know What an Old Pro Thinks About Essay Topics for Ias Mains

Be the First to Know What an Old Pro Thinks About Essay Topics for Ias Mains Basically, in the essay paper, a mixture of all of the above types is normally required. Should you do, it is going to show essay you don't have proper understanding on this issue and you've written go here came to your mind. An individual should plan the entire essay keeping the term limit in essay when writing the topic, though there's no such strict instruction ias word limit given by the UPSC. There are a couple of essay writing tips to bear in mind whilst writing for IAS mains examination. What Does Essay Topics for Ias Mains Mean? You may also become many discounts on our site which will help you to save some more money for future orders or anything you want to spend them on. Again, so as to ias so reading is important. The content following a sub heading should have a major element linked to the principal topic plus stick to the excess information meant to provide under that. Our customer s upport will gladly tell you whether there are any special offers at the present time, in addition to make sure you are getting the very best service our company may deliver. The Number One Question You Must Ask for Essay Topics for Ias Mains If Development isn't engendered, it's endangered 10. So if you prefer to be successful in the IAS exam you must register and cover the on-line test provided by Civil Service India. Empowerment alone are not able to help our women. Students lead busy lives and frequently forget about a coming deadline. Essay Topics for Ias Mains Ideas Most of the best rankers have scored above 55% within this paper. Irrespective doctorate literature review in which you join, when you compose a test, take a look at answer books of candidates that are scoring well. Since it is integral portion of GS now, so it's really crucial in determining the last selection and rank of the candidate. 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Remember it's a General Essay Paper and you shouldn't be highly technical. Essays enable a writer to come up with and increase his writing skills. Each Essay topic would be communicated, together with a suggested framework, to enable you to start. Selecting an Essay topic is the most significant STEP in Essay writing, which comes out of a normal practice, I have to say a minumum of one essay each week. The End of Essay Topics for Ias Mains The term limit has to be adhered to strictly. Your selection of topic does not have any bearing on the marks and that is the reason why, selecting an unpopular topic only for the interest of it is unwise. Memorising difficult words isn't going to help much. You might need to modify the structure in accordance with the demand of the question. 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You can locate my set of a small number of such subheadings in the hyperlink to my notes, given at the close of the write-up. These steps will guarantee that the transition between paragraphs isn't abrupt. Questions m ay utilise the case study strategy to establish these facets. As you pay for homework, we provide those options at no cost. You've got to type the response to every question with the assistance of the keyboard. Fundamentals of grammar and grammatical theory are really important. The absolute most green small business plan definition point is to earn the introduction strong. Correct selection of topic and the acceptable technique of writing are important. As a writer, you've got to work out which style suits you more. Develop your own special manner of writing.

Wednesday, January 1, 2020

Sigmund Freud s Theory Of Dreams - 1259 Words

Sigmund Freud was instrumental in developing many theories. Of the many ideas and contributions he made to research, his analysis of dreams was one of the greatest. Today, his theories are both recognized and disputed, bot nonetheless, significant. Freud incorporated the conscious, unconscious, and developments of thinking into his theories in his book, â€Å"The Interpretation of Dreams.† In The Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association’s, â€Å"Another look at Dreaming: Disentangling Freud’s Primary and Secondary Process Theories† Michael Robbins, 20014, adds to Freud’s theories with his own, and analyses previous theories as well as explains how we interpret dreams. According to Freud, one must first understand the levels of consciousness to understand his theory of dreaming. The conscious level is what we are aware of. They are the normal day to day activities/thoughts we recognize exist. (Cervone Pervin, 2013) The preconscious are t he mental contents which we could become aware of, if brought to our attention. (Cervone Pervin, 2013) For example, you may not be currently thinking of what you had for breakfast this morning, but if someone asked you, you should be able to recall this information. The unconscious are thoughts a person is unaware of and cannot be brought to the conscious. (Cervone Pervin, 2013) For example, a traumatic experience provoking anxiety, may cause someone to force the incident or thoughts about the incident into the unconscious to protectShow MoreRelatedSigmund Freud s Theory Of Sexuality, And The Interoperation Of Dreams1289 Words   |  6 Pages Sigmund Freud An Overview of Two Theories Jace Moselund Palm Beach State college 12/02/2015 â€Æ' Sigmund Freud was born in Freiberg, Moravia on May 6TH 1856 in a Jewish family. He later moved to Vienna where he later became known as the father of psychology. Freud earned his medical degree in 1881, and in 1882 he later became engaged and married to his wife which led to the birth of his 6 children. Only one of Freud’s children chose to follow his footsteps in the field of psychology. ThroughoutRead MoreSigmund Freud. Briana Gates. Mr. Wiles. Psyc 43101-01:1611 Words   |  7 Pages Sigmund Freud Briana Gates Mr. Wiles PSYC 43101-01: History and Systems of Psychology February 25, 2017 On May 6, 1856, a baby by the name of Sigmund Freud was born, in a what is now known as the Czech Republic (Schultz Schultz, 2012). After moving around a bit, Freud eventually settled in Vienna, and spent most his life there. 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English Iii1443 Words   |  6 Pagespsychologist named Sigmund Freud. Freud published a myriad of theories regarding the human mind and its inner workings, which have since fallen from practice. A great majority of his theories have been disproven and rendered useless, though his name is one that is immediately recognized upon mention and he is one of the first figures that psychology majors study. If Freud has fallen from practice, however, why are his theories still studied at all? Although Sigmund Freud’s practices and theories have beenRead More Sigmund Freuds Influence upon Salvador Dali Essay1591 Words   |  7 Pagesexpand knowledge and understanding. Sigmund Freud, the most renowned, thought provoking psychologist to have ever lived, opened an exciting chapter in the study of the mind. Without a doubt, Freud had influenced, and inspired artists searching for something new. The world of psychology and art were interweaving and promising a bold new path. 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Tuesday, December 24, 2019

The Importance Of Violent Video Games - 932 Words

While video games are fun for a lot of people, violent video games have proven to lead to more than just high scores and a source of entertainment. Violent video games need to be limited to our maturing youth. First, violent video games are one of the biggest and increasing outlets for providing our youth with deranged thoughts and aggressive impulsions. Second, the use of violent video games is very prevalent amongst soldiers in the U.S. Army being ordered to play these games to keep them in a warrior mentality. Another thing to note about the violence portrayed in video games is how popular the violence theme is. The increasingly large percent of popular video games today are vastly shooter games. Without a doubt, the teenage shooters†¦show more content†¦(para. 3) Plenty of people argue that the idea of users being rewarded for killing people in-game is a huge trap to the growing mind. Operant conditioning is when a person is rewarded or punished for doing a task. Therefo re, when a young maturing mind completes the task of murder in a video game why are they rewarded. It’s obvious that if someone were to commit murder in real life they would not be rewarded, in turn, they would be punished with jail time. Everyone can agree that war would be classified as a violent act. Short after the invention of video games in the mid-1980’s, as Grossman noted (1998) â€Å"the U.S. Army started using video games to train their young recruits. Soon after using the video game Doom, the rate of soldiers that could actually kill other human beings went up from 50 percent to 90 percent.† (para. 1) Some may argue that this practice is outdated, however, studies as recent as 2014 suggest that there is a large increase in the Army using military-themed video games to desensitize soldiers minds to be able to kill enemy forces easier. Scott Romaniuk, who received a Ph.D. from the University of Trento, contrasted the idea that violence based video games such as the ones the military uses to train their soldiers are perfect for keeping soldiers in the â€Å"killing mood.† (Scott Romaniuk, 2014, â€Å"From Battle ScreenShow MoreRelatedViolent Video Games Cause Violent Behavior1127 Words   |  5 PagesIt widely argued against whether violent video games can trigger violent behavior among those who play them. There s many cases of the violent video games being the main factor of the person being violent, however their is plenty of factors that play a role in the case from parental neglect to drug abuse. In 1983 C. Everett Koop, the U.S. Surgeon General, claimed that video games were a leading cause of family violence. Although video game advocates argue that majority of the research on the topicRead MoreSynopsis Of Storytelling Games 1720 Words   |  7 PagesThesis: Storytelling in games gives the gamers the opportunity to be involved in the game, experience the characters, stimulate feelings like fear and excitement and let the player know they make situations happen and the choices they make affect the outcome as well as motivate them to continue on. Background: After reading parts of The Storytelling Animal, it was clear that storytelling is in everything. As an avid videogame player it was evident that many of the games that people play, like BattlefieldRead MoreEssay on Life is Not a Video Game1698 Words   |  7 PagesVideo games are probably the most asked for present when a child sits on Santa Claus’ lap at Christmas time. They are, in all probability, what kids ask for when they make a wish while blowing out the candles on their birthday cake. 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Monday, December 16, 2019

Morality of Drug Use Free Essays

In his book entitled â€Å"Thinking Critically About Ethical Issues,† Vincent Ryan Ruggiero formulated a criteria consisting of three elements, which criteria relates to respect for persons as a theoretical construct and a practical ethical standard for everyday decision making (Ruggiero, 78). These three criteria are obligations, moral ideals and consequences, which are all applicable to the determination of proper conduct in relation to drug use (Ruggiero, 79). Moral Ideals. We will write a custom essay sample on Morality of Drug Use or any similar topic only for you Order Now Ruggiero explained his concept of moral ideals as distinct from obligations. For him, ideals are goals that characterize excellence, which goals are aimed at by different individuals (Ruggiero, 78). In particular, and in relation to respect for persons, he discussed that moral ideals assist a person in achieving respect for persons (Ruggiero, 80). He also explicated that moral ideals could be composed of various categories, such as the â€Å"cardinal virtues† of old and the theological virtues of religious thinkers. He likewise posited that moral ideals could vary from person to person, or from culture to culture (Ruggiero, 81). This is an important proposition, because the differences in moral ideals determine the differences in treatment given by each person on varying actions. Thus, one person could regard a moral ideal as more than just that, for example as an obligation that requires compliance. Applying this concept to the ethical issue of drug use, it would be concluded that the perspective could be viewed from a number of different perspectives, which also have varying moral ideals. This means that drug use could be viewed positively or negatively by different cultures or population, depending on their respective moral ideals. For example, a population of medical practitioners such as doctors would hold on to the ideal that drug use is necessary in certain cases, such as in situations of a disease or illness that could only be cured by the administration of particular drugs. On the other hand, a population consisting of the religious whose faith dictates the avoidance of drugs would hold on to the exact opposite moral ideal. Thus, an ethical decision hinges on the moral ideals to which the population concerned adhere, because such moral ideals determine the kind of ethical decision that would probably be made in any given situation. Obligations. Ruggiero also discussed the notion of obligations as a criterion for determining respect for persons. His concept of obligations refers to the element of compulsion into doing a certain act, as determined by the situation involved or the relationship between or among parties (Ruggiero, 80). He likewise explained that different kinds of situations and interpersonal relations dictate the kind of obligations that are imposed on a person. Viewing drug use in the light of Ruggiero’s concept of obligations, drug use could be ethically justified by formulating a situation such that the administration or prescription of medicinal drugs and the corresponding use is seen as an obligation on the part of the doctor and the patient to maintain the latter’s good health and long life. Consequences. Finally, Ruggiero discussed the concept of consequences, which refer to the effects of an action on a person (Ruggiero, 81).   He states that the effects could be classified into beneficial or harmful effects, or grouped according to kind, such as whether they are physical or emotional (Ruggiero, 81). The most important aspect of Ruggiero’s discussion of the topic is his position that the benefit or harm caused by a specific act is determined by the impact of such an act on all persons involved, including the actor (Ruggiero, 81). This criterion is relevant in the issue of drug use, because ultimately, any ethical decision on this matter hinges on its effects on the user. Therefore, drug use could be ethically justified if it is shown that there are health benefits that could favor the user or his community. On the other hand, proof that drug use only leads to individual or collective harm would tilt the favor against drug use. In sum, Ruggiero’s three criteria are relevant in any discussion of the morality of drug use. These criteria provide practical knowledge with regard to the things that one should be looking at, prior to making an ethical decision. Works Cited Ruggiero, Vincent Ryan. Thinking Critically About Ethical Issues. 6th ed. How to cite Morality of Drug Use, Essay examples