Tuesday, August 25, 2020
KES The Play Essay The play Kes depicts the life of a fifteen years of age, Billy Casper, who lives with is mother, Mrs. Casper, and his progression sibling Jud. The play happens during and after Billys a days ago at school. It shows the way Billy was feeling toward his bird of prey, and the manner in which he was influenced by it. The play takes various stages to develop the plot, Billy sees the bird of prey in the homesteads close by his home, getting intrigued by the manner in which it lives, gets its food, takes care of its youngs. Billy begins to have musings about having a falcon as a pet or as a creature that he would mind after, and save for himself. The story happens in the environmental factors of Billys life: his home; newsagent, as he works there for Mr. Watchman; Macs house, as the play gives the feeling that he is the main companion he has, aside from the contention and battles they have had in the school; the open library as Billy has scratched a book about falconry that had helped him to manage his bird of prey and gave him the information he expected to take great consideration of his bird of prey; the school that Billy joins in, as the play takes a few sections in the school and as he faces some difficulty there; and some nearby shops that he cruises by. We will compose a custom paper test on KES The Play explicitly for you for just $16.38 $13.9/page Request now We will compose a custom paper test on KES The Play explicitly for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Recruit Writer We will compose a custom paper test on KES The Play explicitly for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Recruit Writer Billy isn't invited by the individuals he lives with as it appears in his conduct with them, his disposition towards them, and their conduct and the manner in which they treat him. His mom toward the start of the play blamed him for having fags, even idea she seemed like not being certain, and afterward she approached him for a few things to get her before setting off to his school. I think because of her blaming him for having fags he wouldn't get her the cigarettes and different things she requested, giving a reason that he will be behind schedule for school. Every so often later Billy goes to Macs house, as he required somebody to go with to the fowls home, watching them fly, land, feed and take care of there kids. Macintoshes mother abused him by disclosing to him bugger off you grass, as an award of tossing a handfull of earth at the window after she would not wake up Mac giving reasons that its still ahead of schedule for him to hang out. Billy and his sibling Jud dont live a decent relationship, it goes on toward the start of the play, as Jud won't set the caution for Billy, he depletes the milk pot so he wont leave any for Billy, being critical with Billy Jud attempts to persuade him that he will just look for some kind of employment down the pit after he completes school, for that Billy eats Juds snap that Jud has arranged for work. Be that as it may, Billy does whatever it takes not to consider working there as it appears from the manner in which he was conversing with the educator when he was extending to an employment opportunity down the pit, yet Jud continue revealing to him that he cannot work down the pit either in light of the fact that he cannot peruse and compose or either on the grounds that he isn't sufficiently intense to work there as he considers him a weedy little bugger. As things were go on acceptable with his work supervisor Mr. Watchman in his newsagent shop until Billy shakes the stepping stool that Mr.Porter was remaining on, deliberately that made Mr. Watchman calls him You ungainly youthful bugger. Mr. Watchman was very stressed that Billy probably won't have the option to convey every one of his papers at time, as his sibling Jud have taken his bicycle, and that may cause him some misfortune in his shops benefit if Billy conveys the papers later than he is assumed. I discover that these individuals treat him by and large similarly, yet with a distinction from one to the next. I think Billy prefers to have discussions with individuals despite the fact that he dont know them, as when he was conveying his papers in the early morning, in the wake of leaving Mr. Doormen newsagent, and saw the milkman who began a discussion with Billy about having something to convey his papers with regardless of whether its a Third class riding which is better than top of the line strolling, as the milkman might suspect, yet as indicated by Billy that is nothing but bad as he says that it do close to five miles for every hour, and that he can do quicker on a children bike.
Saturday, August 22, 2020
World War Two and the Decline of Europe papers Europe will never resemble America. Europe is a result of history. America is a result of theory. Margaret Thatcher (1925 - ) In the year nineteen hundred, the focal point of force to be reckoned with inarguably dwelled in Europe. Truth be told, for a long time, numerous European nations were the heads of immense domains, traversing the globe (and procuring her spoils)for, albeit spread to unimaginable lengths, European countries held firm control of their provincial domains (and the riches they procured through them), and delighted in an impact over most of the total populace. World War II changed the entirety of that, and would go on to sway the eventual fate of the Western world. What took the countries of Europe hundreds of years to secure through war, triumph, and settlement, demonstrated to topple exponentially quicker than its ascent, furthermore, the end of the Second World War proclaimed the finish of, not just the time of realms, yet of the time of European matchless quality on the planet. In truth, before the finish of 1990, only forty after five years, Europe would be for all intents and purposes unrecognizable from its previous self. Truly, the Second World War staggeringly affected the foundation of incalculable urban areas. From besieged out structures, to mined fields, to devastated extensions, streets and crucial frameworks, Europe needed to Socially, the cost of untold human enduring overloaded a whole age with its painfor, in contrast to the immense number of American war dead, most of those murdered in Europe were civilianmillions of men, ladies, and childrenlost to the repulsions of the holocaust, terrible bombarding Financially, the effect of the War on Europe was tremendous. Before the War, Europe was probably the most extravagant mainland on the earth. Toward the back ... <!
Thursday, August 6, 2020
Buy Borrow Bypass Celebrity Memoirs Celebrity memoirs are popping up left and right these days. It seems like everyone whos even a little bit famous eventually writes a memoir, but that doesnt mean that all of these books are created equal. Celeb memoirs are my absolute favorite way to spend my audiobook time, so I like to think I know enough to give a few solid recommendations. While there are a number of excellent celeb memoirs to choose from, Im highlighting a few more recent ones today. Why Not Me? by Mindy Kaling (2015) Why Not Me? is Mindy Kalings second memoir, following Is Everyone Hanging Out Without Me? which is a personal favorite. The second memoir definitely felt more polished, like Kaling has really come into her own as a writer. Its a mix of essays, lists, and fictional daydream emails that both had me laughing out loud and contemplating the complexities of life. Verdict: This one is a great read, especially on audio, but might not necessarily be something you refer back to often, so borrow the audio. If you happen to be a massive Mindy Kaling fan like I am, youll probably want to buy to add to your collection. Where Am I Now? by Mara Wilson (2016) Ill admit it, I watched Matilda maybe once and have still never seen Miracle on 34th Street, so Im sitting in the camp that wouldnt have recognized Mara Wilson by name. After meeting her at Book Riot Live, though, I knew I wanted to give her book a go even though I wasnt a superfan of her career as a child actor. Where Am I Now? is an essay collection with a lot more depth than simply telling us about being a child actor who isnt working in film anymore. Wilson takes on a slew of issues in regards to mental health and mortality, as well as some legitimately funny passages. Verdict: This book shows that Mara Wilson has got real writing chops. I know Ill be coming back to this one again, so I say buy for sure. The Girl With the Lower Back Tattoo by Amy Schumer (2016) I enjoyed the way Schumers Trainwreck put a new spin on the romantic comedy, but have never been able to get into her stand up comedy, so this one was iffy for me from the beginning. I decided to go for the audio through Overdrive, and I felt about the book the same way I feel about Amy SchumerI have no idea. Some sections were compelling and funny, while others didnt sit well with me. I guess Ill forever be unsure how to take Amy Schumer. Verdict: If youre a huge fan of Amy Schumers humor, borrow this book on audio, but if youre on the fence about her like I am, bypass. Thats all Ive got for now. Im excited for another year of listening my way through a ton of celebrity memoirs! Save Save
Saturday, May 23, 2020
Francine Briones ENG 240 Professor Kevin Reardon 1/22/15 Nursing and Social Media Social media has been taking over and on the rise for the past few years now. Everyone these days has some kind of social communication thatÃ¢â¬â¢s online and the number of users are escalating on a daily basis. Social media has become such a popular yet dangerous way of communicating through technology. Some people can be naÃ ¯ve to the fact that everyone can see what they post regardless of their privacy settings. People need to keep that in mind especially when working in an industry where everything has to be kept confidential. From the article Ã¢â¬Å"Guidelines for Using Electronic and Social Media: The Regulatory PerspectiveÃ¢â¬ , it read Ã¢â¬Å"Social media is not merely a driving force in everyday life, but one that fits seamlessly into how communication is transmittedÃ¢â¬ (Spector, N., Kappel, D., 2012). Some people get too involved with the internet and social media and end up abusing its power. When it comes to the health care field like nursing, everything nurses work around should be kept private and confidential to keep their patients information safe. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re proud of your patient, tell them. ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s no need to post every thought that comes to mind on social media. Nurses must keep a professional boundary and know not to mix business with pleasure because it can end up getting them in trouble. Their work life and personal life should be kept separate from each other and should be on a Ã¢â¬Å"need toShow MoreRelatedNarrative Literature Reviews1589 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesBecome informed about the debates and arguments on a specific subject n Question our practice and identify opportunities for change n ( Bryant et al 2003, Price 2003) The value of literature reviews n The MMR (measles, mumps, rubella) vaccination media stories in 1998-1999 n In 1998 Wakefield published an article in the Lancet suggesting a possible link between the vaccination, autism and bowel disorders. Based on 12 children, no controls n Newspaper headlines led the public to believe that theRead MoreSeparating Violence : Reality And Video Games1368 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesviolence, at least when they are sold to childrenÃ¢â¬ (Liptak). This implies that there are those who believe that the violence in video games is so linked to violence within the real world that they believe violence should be censored out of the video game media regardless of the implications of the First Amendment. Again, this is based on the idea that all children who play violent video games are prone to acting in a violent manner. The second area of evidence that supports the concept that video gamesRead MoreFacebook And Its Impact On Our Lives2138 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesgenerations. Launched in 2006, Twitter is the latest, most valuable gizmo men and women of different generations use to communicate events or quickly publicize new ideas, thoughts, and opinions. This microblog, which is extremely different from most social networks, lives off of popularity. Through 140 characters or less, users Ã¢â¬Å"tweetÃ¢â¬ (a post made on Twitter) about Ã¢â¬Å"the inane to the arresting. But taken together, they open a surprising window onto the moods, thoughts, and activities of society at largeÃ¢â¬ Read MoreBenefits of Technology Incorporation into a Classroom Setting1519 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesinstructional rooms had internet connection. (Kleiner and Farris 2002). One of the more popular technologies that were in use at that time was the overhead projector where instructors could utilize these overheads to project handouts, worksheets and notes to the whole class in a more concrete way. This type of learning was popular because it gave students a chance to see the work rather than it being verbally read to them. As more technology developed, it became apparent that it could help in furtheringRead MoreThe Icn Code of Ethics for Nurses3808 Words Ã |Ã 16 Pagesprevent illness, to restore health and to alleviate suffering. The need for nursing is universal. Inherent in nursing is respect for human rights, including cultural rights, the right to life and choice, to dignity and to be treated with respect. Nursing care is respectful of and unrestricted by considerations of age, colour, creed, culture, disability or illness, gender, sexual orientation, nationality, politics, race or social status. Nurses render health services to the individual, the family andRead MoreEssay about Providing Security for Nurses2909 Words Ã |Ã 12 Pagessaid, according to the American Nursing Association (2011) there are over 3.1 million registered nurses nationwide, making nurses the largest segment of the healthcare workplace. Common sense seems to dictate that policy makers would be wise to address any issues that threaten the health or safety of those responsible for the delivery of care to our loved ones. As Cynthia Haney, J.D., senior policy fellow for the American Nursing AssociationÃ¢â¬â¢s Department of Nursing Practice and Policy explains, Ã¢â¬Å"RegisteredRead MoreEssay on Pdf Unit 45 Level 3 Health and Social Care3593 Words Ã |Ã 15 PagesUnit 45: Independent Learning in Health and Social Care Unit code: D/600/9026 QCF Level 3: BTEC Nationals Credit value: 10 Guided learning hours: 60 Aim and purpose This unit aims to enable learners to work independently and contribute effectively in a learning environment. Learners will be able to focus on learning and how they approach the process of learning, including learning choices, methods of learning and resources. Unit introduction Learners are increasingly being encouraged toRead MoreA Report On Substance Abuse3562 Words Ã |Ã 15 Pages Substance Abuse Whitney Primeau Saginaw Valley State University Abstract There are many factors that impact vulnerability including social conditions, such as education, environmental factors, nutrition, stress and prejudice along with a familyÃ¢â¬â¢s poverty level. Vulnerability will be discussed as it relates to adolescent substance abuse. Adolescence is considered a vulnerable time in life for many reasons and itÃ¢â¬â¢s the most vulnerable time in life for an individual to develop a substanceRead MoreUsing Music Therapy in the Treatment of Stress and Anxiety Essay1835 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesinterventions would be required. An alternative would be Ã¢â¬Ëon-the-spot relaxation techniquesÃ¢â¬ ( Elliot et al., 2011, p. 265) (as cited in Payne, 2000). The characteristics of Ã¢â¬Ëon-the-spot relaxation procedures are that they are portable, relatively brief, convenient, and unobtrusive, while still being an effective aid to relaxation . One technique that would fulfill the recommended criteria is music listening. Music therapy is a practice tha t can help therapists with their patients. In order to optimallyRead MorePersonal and Professional Healthcare Communication Paper1876 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesof health information, individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ adherence to clinical recommendations and regimens, the construction of public health messages and campaigns, the dissemination of individual and population health risk information, images of health in the mass media and the culture at large, the education of consumers about how to gain access to the public health and health care systems, and the development of telephone health applications. For individuals, effective health communication can help raise awareness
Monday, May 11, 2020
Assignment Title: Functionalism claims to account for the functions and causes of crime and deviance within contemporary British society, yet it fails to account for white collar crime. Evaluate this statement. Every society is guided by laws and regulations, therefore, breaking of the law is known as crime or deviance. Crime and deviance will be defined with examples and how what is crime and deviance depend on culture and society will be analysed. Thus, a criminal act in one place is a norm in another place. Crime and Deviance changes as the society evolve, there were some activities that were classified as crime or deviance historically in England but are no longer crime and vice versa some activities that were not crime historicallyÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ËCrime and deviance are relative conceptsÃ¢â¬â¢ that are based on a given society, culture and religion and there are no Ã¢â¬Ëfixed laws and normsÃ¢â¬â¢ (Marsh. Et al, 1997:511). Thus, a criminal behaviour in one society could be a norm in another society and a norm in a particular place could be a deviant in another place, crime and deviance are subject to change. Example of what used to be a crime but it is no long er a crime is homosexuality as mentioned above was a criminal act but is no longer a criminal act. However, homosexuality could still have been a criminal offence in UK if people did react that it should be made legal. The act that was not considers being illegal but now illegal is smoking in public places; it was not illegal to smoke in public places in England until 1 July 2007 when the smoke free regulations came to effect (smokefreeengland.co.uk). Although, homosexuality is not a crime in the UK but it is a crime in another country, for instance; homosexuality is a criminal and deviant act in Nigeria; it is culturally, socially and religiously unacceptable. The reason for this is because many Nigerians find it difficult to understand how one could be attracted to the same sex, and they believe that a marriage should be between a male and a female according to the Bible and Quran. Therefore, anyone caught in the act would be condemned by the society and prosecuted accordingly (mi ssionislam.com: QurÃ¢â¬â¢an 7:80-81), (bbc.co.uk) and (skepticsannotatedbible.com:Show MoreRelatedCrime, Deviance, And Deviance899 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesa people so drawn to crime and deviance in the news? What is it about human nature that has a secret sense of interest or even some excitement when we turn on the television and see something major going on like a high speed chase or the like? Interestingly, the closer it happens to be to where we are, the more interested we become as opposed to something happening out of state, or further off in another country. The point here is not to defend or glamorize crime and deviance, but to point out thatRead MoreCrime, Deviance, And Deviance3445 Words Ã |Ã 14 PagesCrime and Deviance This report will begin by making a distinction between the concepts of crime and deviance, accompanied by the concept that crime is a social construct. Then this report will evaluate some theoretical approaches to how and why crime exists. Further reference will be made to the existing crime statistics, and the validity and reliability of the official statistics that measure crime. Finally, this report will look into the presentation of crime in two areas of the mass media. AtRead MoreDeviance And Crime And Deviance1623 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesDEVIANCE AND CRIME Deviance occurs when an individual commits something that disregards or breaks a social norm or folkway; deviant behaviors are considered criminal when it breaks more serious mores. These mores or laws, unlike norms or folkways, have more formal punishments and sanctions, such as fines or imprisonment. The purpose of these punishments or sanctions, according to Diana Kendalt (2017) in Sociology in Our Times, is to give retribution, make a general deterrence, incapacitation, orRead MoreCrime and Deviance1123 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesexplanations of Crime and Deviance Labelling theory paved the way in understanding how deviance was something defined by social processes. In this way social agencies such as the police defined what was deviant. Marxists took this view even further by examining the power of certain social groups to define deviance and create the laws which secured social conformity. Marxists see crime and deviance as not coming from moral or biological defects but defects within social order. Crime is an inevitableRead MoreCrime and Deviance810 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDaÃ¢â¬â¢Vaughn Hawkins Introduction of Sociology 29 October 2015 Written Assignment #3 Crime and Deviance With the rise of crime rates in the last couple of years, people are wondering if locking up the criminal and throwing away the key would be effective for social control. What these people fail to see is that by just throwing away the key, you arenÃ¢â¬â¢t actually helping that person to strive for and become anything better. The thing that would be more effective than throwing away the key isRead MoreCrime And Deviance1550 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIn studying crimes and deviance, sociologists look to explain what types of behavior are defined as deviant as opposed to criminal, who defines deviant behaviors, why people become deviant, and how society deals with deviant behavior. Deviance is defined by sociologists are behavior that significantly goes against expected rules and norms. Criminal behavior is behavior that violates the law. Sociology studies groups as opposed to individuals, so when studying crime and deviance, sociologists areRead MoreDeviance And Crime1611 Words Ã | Ã 7 Pagessociology book is about deviance, crime, and social control. This chapter was very interesting to me because it shows you how much violence is in our world that you do not really think about or hear about because it is overlooked. Everyone focuses on the big crimes, such as school shootings or terrorists acts, and overlook the victimless crimes and smaller things. This chapter also taught me a lot about deviance and made me form an opinion on whether it is a good or bad thing. Deviance is Ã¢â¬Å"a violationRead MoreCrime and Deviance1885 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesfor the high proportion of young, working class males shown in official statistics on crime.Ã¢â¬ This essay will start by making a distinction between the concepts of crime and deviance, followed by an examination how such concepts have been acquired and accepted by society. Further reference will be made to the current crime statistics, and analyse some of the possible explanations for the high proportion of crime that is being committed by young males. Finally, consideration will be given to whatRead MoreCrime and Deviance2170 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagescauses crime and deviance in society, biological or social factors? Definitions of crime and deviance would change according to time, place, situation and culture, as what is acceptable in one would be unacceptable in another. Crime would entail the breaking of the law according to time and place, deviance would be an action that is unacceptable to the majority within the time and place, but both can alter during time, place, culture and social norms including religion. One example of crime wouldRead MoreCrime and Deviance3081 Words Ã |Ã 13 PagesCrime and Deviance from a Sociological and Psychological assessment: The sociology of deviance is the sociological study of deviant behavior, or the recognized violation of cultural norms. Cultural Norms are societys propensity towards certain ideals; their aversion from others; and their standard, ritualistic practices. Essentially the norm is a summation of typical activities and beliefs of group of people. There are various Sociological deviance theories, including Structuralist: why
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Into the wild character comparison essay Into the wild is a story about a man named Christopher Mishandles. In this story we learn that he gives up almost everything he owns to take a dangerous Journey and live off the land. Along the way we learn about a man named Gene Roseland who has a similar but deferent story to Christopher. We will write a custom essay sample on Into the wild character comparison or any similar topic only for you Order Now Although these two men have a lot In common, they also have many differences. Christopher Mishandles was a very Intelligent guy. He graduated from Emory university with honors and was an excellent athlete. Many people saw Christopher as one of them students that would most likely succeed In life. Ditching the Idea of going to law school, he decided to take a Journey throughout Alaska and some other places. He burned most of his money and only had a ten pound bag of rice for food, and a rifle for whatever he caught on the way. Gene Reselling was almost just like Christopher. He also excelled in academics. Carrying a grade point average of 4. 0 throughout highlights and college. He did not receive a degree though because he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t see a point in it, and only studied for the sake of learning. After college he decided to do an anthropological experiment. Gene believed that he could live off the grid just as Christopher did. He saw that people could do without modern day technology and live life like it was in the Older days. Unlike Christopher, Gene carried enough supplies to last him months or even longer. He also was dressed more properly for the harsh weather. When Christopher set offer his Journey, he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t tell anyone where he would be going. He simply left everything behind him like it was nothing. Getting lucky, Christopher found people to stay with and work under the table for. These jobs were only temporary for him as he would go from place to place often. Since he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t bring a lot of food or supplies, it made it really hard on him to manage. Because he chose to not be more prepared like Gene, Christopher died of starvation. Although many people believed Chris had died from eating bad berries, this theory has not been yet proven. On the other hand, Gene Reselling experiment lasted for about 30 years. Soon after he realized that this Idea of his was absolutely Impossible, he decided to re-evaluate his goals. Out of complete shock, Roseland had committed suicide with a knife through his heart lying face down. These were both tragic deaths that sparked many people In Alaska and even attracted hate. These two men play a very Important role In travel history and the book Ã¢â¬Å"Into the WildÃ¢â¬ . With their very similar situations and stories, both men were very good people and had the Intentions of proving the same point. Neither one of these people are exactly the same but, they wanted to show people that going Into the wild and living off the land isnÃ¢â¬â¢t always impossible. It just takes a lot of skills and and hard work. Into the wild character comparison By Raven_16 live off the land. Along the way we learn about a man named Gene Reselling who has a similar but different story to Christopher. Although these two men have a lot in Christopher Mishandles was a very intelligent guy. He graduated from Emory University with honors and was an excellent athlete. Many people saw Christopher as one of them students that would most likely succeed in life. Ditching the idea of Gene Reselling was almost Just like Christopher. He also excelled in academics, believed that he could live off the grid Just as Christopher did. He saw that people Unlike Christopher, Gene carried enough supplies to last him months or even longer. When Christopher set off for his Journey, he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t tell anyone where he would be Christopher found people to stay with and work under the table for. These Jobs were about 30 years. Soon after he realized that this idea of his was absolutely impossible, he decided to re-evaluate his goals. Out of complete shock, Reselling had committed that sparked many people in Alaska and even attracted hate. These two men play a very important role in travel history and the book Ã¢â¬Å"Into the and had the intentions of proving the same point. Neither one of these people are exactly the same but, they wanted to show people that going into the wild and living off the land isnÃ¢â¬â¢t always impossible. It Just takes a lot of skills and and hard work. How to cite Into the wild character comparison, Papers
Friday, May 1, 2020
Question: Describe about the CST Audit for BHP Billiton. Answer: Introduction Scope of Engagement In the present report, I have been instructed to conduct the Corporate Social Audit for BHP Billiton. In a standard corporate social audit, a thorough assessment of the organisation is done with respect to its actual performance on various goals of corporate social responsibility. It appraises quantifiable targets envisioned to support the company to achieve the potentials desired by the stakeholders for the social and environmental obligations of the company. The prime concerns of this audit is to understand whether the company is an upright global citizen or the company follow the CSR policies that it announces it does, or in other words does the company walk-the-talk. Also, the evidence and measurable information is collected in CSR audit to prove these points. The purpose of this audit is to ensure that the actual social performances of the company are achieved with reference to the social aims that the company has envisioned for itself. While conducting the CSR audit for BHP Billiton, scope of my engagement allows me to do cautious, precise monitoring, and assessment of the social responsibilities policies of BHP Billiton and actions they undertake to implement these policies. As a result of this audit, it would be evident whether the company is implementing strategies as it has deliberated. The nature of CSR allows the information to be thoroughly scrutinised by public, as it is meant for the benefit of the society at large, thus this audit would help achieve this goal. The following questions would be answered in the current CSR audit report: Whether BHP Billiton is achieving the target it has set for its CSR or its falling short of its own goals and expectations? The important question, whether BHP Billiton walk-the-talk? What are the current policies that BHP Billiton claims regarding CSR and what further steps it can take to includecommunally accountable enterprises into its business which also adds value to it? Literature Review to understand CSR As early as 1917, the corporate social responsibility could be seen in the announcement made by Henry Ford, of the Ford Motor company which said that the company aims to spread benefits to the society, to make profits and utilize it for the upliftment of everybody concerned (Lee, 2008). Ford is thus among the pioneers of social responsibility initiatives in the business world. However, the Social Responsibilities of the Businessman (1953) by Bowen is said to be the first work that set the academic perspective in the relationship between society and the companies (Matten and Moon, 2008). According to Bowens book, in order to achieve greater performance and sustainability in the long run, the company must be conscious of the ethics of business. CSR enterprises are highly significant in the background of commercial conscience (Maignan and Ferrell, 2004). Since its inception several aspects of CSR have attracted the scholars and CSR practitioners alike. Godfrey, Merrill, and Hansen (2009 ) in their work on CSR have compared that the CSR initiative gives an insurance-like shield to the company in case of undesirable events occur. Bhattacharya, Korschun, and Sen (2008), advocates that the companys CSR activities shows its inÃ ¯Ã ¬Ã¢â¬Å¡uence in the growth of its sales along with increase in opportunities of investments and employment prospects. Reverte (2011) determined that the companies which have a higher rating in CSR ratings may enjoy a maintainable competitive lead engrained in the human assets. Such companies tend to attract extra and better workforces as compared to the companies which have rather low ratings in CSR. Therefore, if the company has aim to achieve the sustainable growth, and pursue a desirable and good public reputation in the highly competitive business world, it must ensure to incorporate, initiate and also publish CSR reports and CSR disclosures. The CSR has its foundations in the view of the social responsibility. After the book by Bowen in 1953, CSR pyramid (Fig.1) was coined by Carroll in 1979. This pyramid had four phases of CSR growth, namely: the economic, the legal, the ethical, and the philanthropic duties (Dudovskiy, 2012). Fig.1 (Source: Dudovskiy, J. (2012) Carrolls CSR pyramid - research methodology. Available at: https://research-methodology.net/carrolls-csr-pyramid-and-its-applications-to-small-and-medium-sized-businesses/ (Accessed: 25 August 2016).) The marketing researchers began to give regard to the aspects of CSR since the 1960s. the aim was to put emphasis on the social duties with respect to the marketing functions primarily. The researches in this area of CSR placed importance on the marketing related dimensions, like the aspects of cause-related marketing (Jahdi, 2014), environmental marketing (Crouch, 2006), social sponsorship (Becker-Olsen, Cudmore and Hill, 2006), collaborating with customers about CSR matters (Caruana and Crane, 2008), the response of consumers towards the companys CSR performance (Ellen, 2006) and the reputation of the company (Wagner, Lutz, and Weitz, 2009). The additional foundations of CSR are defined by the stakeholder theory which as per Maignan and Ferrell (2004) is derived by few key motivators like the instrumental approach. The corporates depend on the continuous support and resources from the stakeholders, thus their needs and claims have to be considered by the company (Vilanova, Lozano, and Arenas, 2008). Another important perspective of CSR is the moral one. Donaldson and Preston, (1995) suggests that each group or person which has legal interest in being part of the company, participate for some beneÃ ¯Ã ¬Ã ts and the interests of these parties cannot be prioritized. Academics scrutinize the issues of CSR from the perspective of the stakeholders relationship and emphasis is given on keeping the stakeholders informed (Basu and Palazzo, 2008), the impact of this relationship with the stakeholder the commercial sustainability (Michelon, Boesso, and Kumar, 2012), the knowledge of CSR in the companys stakeholders and their association with Ã ¯Ã ¬Ã nancial performance of the business, commercial investments and loyalty of the worker (Allouche, 2006). CSR Commitment of BHP Billiton An Anglo-Australian company, BHP Billiton, is a renowned international metals, mining, and petroleum corporation. It has its headquarter in Melbourne, Australia. BHP Billiton was established by amalgamation of BHP, a company of natural resources and Billiton, a mining corporation in 2001. Today the company has its operations in around 25 countries and provide employment to nearly 29,670 workers. As per 2015 data it has made revenue of A$61.2 billion (BHP Billiton Plc, 2015). According to the management of BHP Billiton, the CSR Policy of the company is devised to address the risks and it clearly establishes its rule of "zero tolerance" for the delinquencies specially in the areas like, involuntary or compulsory labor, child labor, conduct of workers, living remunerations, health and safety measures in the workplace, liberty of forming association, world heritage sites and endangered zones, use of biofuels, dishonesty, corruption and extortion, discrimination, obedience with laws, indi genous privileges and the environment (BHP Billiton Our contribution, 2016). Exclusivity of BHP Billiton policy of CSR The uniqueness of BHP Billiton CSR policies is their transparency in making public announcements and advertisement regarding their annual CSR reports. The company each year publishes such reports on its websites and media for public scrutiny and analysis. It uses four channels of communication to advertise their CSR policies. On the official website of the company one can find the companys CSR reports, whose purpose is to be scrutinized by the company stakeholders. Also, the announcements and news regarding CSR activities are available on its website, which are intended to deliver updated information on the companys CSR performance and events. The multimedia available on the website regarding the CSR of the company also proves to be an effective way to impart information and enhance their reputation. With apt use of multimedia, relevant interview, news, images, etc. company succeeds to build a good image of socially responsible entity in the society. It also allows, feedbacks from th e stakeholders through its website by means of submitting online enquiries, thus making the company not only proactive but also responsive with regards to its duties towards the environment as well as the society (BHP Billiton Community sustainability reports, 2016). The drivers of CSR for BHP Billiton are the contemplations regarding the necessities of environment, health, safety, community and socio-economic risks. Being a mining and petroleum corporate the company uses the feedback of stakeholder and pursue to continuously improve its CSR activities. Evidence of Assurance to CSR by BHP Billiton The company uses several ways to make sure it complies with the CSR policies it has set for itself. BHP uses a number of methods to ensure it complies with its CSR Policy. Some of the evidences can be observed in the companys conduct of a developmental evaluation on its own performance with regards to the Global Reporting Initiative and the UN Global Compact code. This ensures alignment of the companys operations with its CSR policies. Also, BHP Billiton, holds Forum on Corporate Responsibility (FCR), an annual event that ensures collaboration of people from the senior management, public opinion leaders and chief non-government organizations. The purpose of these meetings is to deliberate and discuss the social and environmental issues which are important for the operations of BHP Billiton. Also, the company investment in public schemes and make records of its public charities in the UN Millennium Development Goals (MDG). This grants a steady outline for gauging the tangible developm ent of the company in its CSR initiatives. All these reports and updates are openly available on the companys official website. The actual CSR position in BHP Billiton Though the company has historically argued in model that it stands by its sturdy corporate responsibility policy model, however there could be seen some gaping windows between the pompous announcement and actual ground realities. The companys core operation is to provide natural resources and the social pressure on this industry are manifold. Thus it can be seen that the companys CSR policies are devised to as a tool of public relations to mitigate negative influences caused by extensive mining or petroleum extraction. The deals made by the company historically are evidence of more inclination towards making profits then actual concern for the welfare of the society, like the Chinese deal of 10,500 tons of uranium annual supply against which the company was warned by the Australian Conservation Foundation (ACF). However, BHP Billiton had more interests in making profits for the company. Similar examples of bribery and lack of concern for the health and safety of the workers working i n its mines are alarming examples of gaps in the theory and actual practice by the company. Recommendations and conclusion In this highly competitive business world, the impact made by the petroleum and mining companies is a matter of great concern for the environmental researches and social scientist. Each company have different level of CSR policies. Comparison of BHP Billiton with other similar companies like British Petroleum and Shell shows how the globally successful companies use the CSE policies to stand apart in the industry. Each company attempts to create value through their CSR reporting which puts emphasis on the social and environmental concerns of the stakeholders. The CSR policy of BHP Billiton must attempt to adhere to the standards it has set for itself. It is extensively necessary for a company to obtain creditability specially in regards to what it claims and how it actually acts upon. The company make announcements for the initiatives it undertakes in regards to fulfillment of CSR policy guidelines, it must also ensure to acknowledge and take responsibilities for the cases where it failed to do so. It is unavoidable for large companies like BHP Billiton to stay away from controversies, especially since they are operating in the industries such as petroleum and mining, which are highly controversial areas when the concerns of society and environment comes. Thus it is highly recommended for the company to ensure strict adherence to its CSR policies to avoid any legal or reputational issues. The company must make policies only to which it can stick while making its own profits and value for the society as well as the environment its working in. 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